PAPERS PRESENTED AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON “WATER SECURITY AND HYDROLOGICAL EXTREMES: TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA” AND THE “1ST AFRICAN REGIONAL CONSULTATIVE MEETING OF THE NATIONAL COMMITTEES FOR UNESCO – INTERNATIONAL HYDROLOGICAL PROGRAMME” HELD AT TRANCORP HILTON HOTEL, ABUJA, NIGERIA, 27TH FEBRUARY 2ND MARCH, 2006.
A total of thirty-four (34) papers were delivered during the Scientific Conference which was split into two Parallel Sessions: –
- Surface Water Issues
- Groundwater Issues
SURFACE WATER ISSUES
“Climate Change, Vulnerability, Classification and Impact Reduction in Nigeria’s Water Sector”, by Prof. D.O. Adefolalu
“ Variabilite Des Parameters Hydrologiques Du Niger Superieur” , by Brahima Coulibaly
“Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in Nigeria”, by Prof. C.A. Okuofu
“Hydrological Extremes, the Bane of Environmental Disasters in Africa”, by Dr. (Mrs.) M.A. Ogunjobi – Oyeleke.
“On Shared River Basins – Case Study of Nigeria”, by Prof. S. Mustafa
“The Role of Lnd Use and Land Use Change Hydrological Extremes: Separating
Myth and Reality”, by Prof. G. Jewitt
“Process of the Setting up of the structure integrated management of water resources
of Madagascar”, by Helison Romuald Razafindrakoto
“Implication of Land Use Dynamics for Climate Change and Vulnerability in
Nigeria”, by Dr. Ayobami T. Salami
“Extreme Hydrological Event in the River Niger Basin”, by I.A. Olomoda
“The Summary of Key Water Issues in Africa and the Use of Geo-Spatial Techniques
in Water Resources Management”, by Rakiya Abdullahi
“Sudan Water Management Crisis”, by Mr. Abdalla Ahmed
“Water Resources of River Basins in Nigeria”, by Prof. K. Schoeneich
“Suggested Risk Management Strategies for Flood and Drought for Adoption in Africa
and Developing Countries”, by J. A Shamonda, M.H. Ibrahim, D. E. Udoeka,
“Problems of Increasing Landuse Intensity in Integrated Water Resources Management and the Need for Ecological Civilization in Attaining Water Security
in Nigeria”, by J.N. Okpara, L.E. Akeh, A.C. Anuforom
“Risque de surexploitation d’un systeme aquifere cotier: cas du systeme aquifere de
Godomey Benin meridional”, by Dr Boukari Moussa
“Hydrochemical and isotopic characterization of groundwater in Birimian aquifers,
Ghana”, by Dr. Bruce Banoeng
“A Review of the State of Groundwater Evaluation and Exploitation in Nigeria”, by
Dr. M.E. Offodile
“L etat des Eaux Souterraines et Les Grandes Ensemble Hydrogeologiques du Bassin
Vesant du Fleuve Congo” , by Willy- Etienne Musoyi Bayipoke
“Evaluating Groundwater Resources of Nigeria”, by Prof. O. Ajayi
“The Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis of the Aquifers of the Coastal Basin of
Togo”, by Dr. Kissao Gnandi
“The Artesian Aquifers around Lake Chad”, by Dr. G.E. Oteze
“UNESCO-ISARM and African Aquifer Systems”, by Dr. Bo Appelgren
“AQUIFER project approaches: Earth Observation for Integrated Water Resources
Management in Africa, by Dr. S. Saradeth and Mr. John Chabo
“Issues in Trans-boundary Aquifer Management –Preliminary Results from the
Iullemeden Aquifer System”, by John Chabo
“Water Availability and Management in Northern Nigeria: Surface or Groundwater
Option”, by Adama Baba
“Recharge Studies in the Nigerian Sector of the Chad Basin Using Geochemical
Data”, by Dr Ibrahim Baba Goni
“Overview of Groundwater Resources Development Programmes in Nigeria”, by Dr.
“Method and Scope of Water Resources Management in Transboundary Aquifers:
Water Budget for Katsina State as a Case Study”, by Mohammed L. Garba.
PAPER I: “UNESCO-IHP PROGRAMME”, BY DR. A. SZÖLLÖSI-NAGY
The paper summarized the activities of the International Hydrological Programme and defined IHP as Inter-governmental Council on Water Science and Education programme in 191 member-states of UNESCO. The paper informed that National Committees exist in 160 countries and are headed by the highest Civil Servant with members of the committees drawn from the scientific community, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Universities in their respective countries. The paper surmarised that the UNESCO-IHP has three main basic pillars, viz:-
- The International Hydrological Programme (IHP), which is a major scientific programme of UNESCO in water resources and is in its Sixth Phase.
- UNESCO-IHP Institute for Water Education which runs PhD sandwich programmes and that 99% of the programme participants are coming from the developing countries.
- UN World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP), incorporating about 23 United Nations Agencies, cooperating to find solutions to the changing world water situation.
The paper further stated that the changing hydrological cycle is caused by climate change resulting in: –
- More disasters
- Less water for the people
- Looming crisis among nations
The emerging risks, according to the paper, require the collaboration of many nations to tackle and that a new consensus is emerging in international thinking about water resources. UNESCO has designated water as its major priority and the main task of the scientific community now is how to make water a priority issue of policy and decision makers round the world considering the importance of the resource to human existence.
PAPER II “OVERVIEW OF THE CONFERENCE PROGRAMMES AND
OBJECTIVES”, BY ENGR. M.H. IBRAHIM
The presentation was made by the Director of Hydrology and Hydrogeology, Federal Ministry of Water Resources, Nigeria. Participants were informed that during the Ministry’s delegation to the 38th Session of the Bureau of the Intergovernmental Council of the IHP held at the UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, France, from the 6th– 8th June, 2005 and in recognition of the fact that it is only the Sub-Saharan African group that was yet to initiate regional cooperative activities of IHP National Committees in Africa, Nigeria was requested and accepted to take the lead in the hosting of the International Scientific Conference and the African Regional Meeting.
As a result, this high level regional scientific conference on water issues in Africa was hosted jointly with an African regional consultative meeting of the National Committees for IHP in Abuja, Nigeria for the first time. Apart from hosting the conference, Nigeria is also supporting such African countries with the provision of accommodation for some delegates while UNESCO provides for the cost of their flight tickets and transportation to and fro Nigeria to facilitate their participation at the conference.
He stated that the Conference is specifically meant to achieve the following: –
- To strengthen Africa’s regional capacities in its water resources utilization and management. This is achievable through the cohesive implementation of IHP activities,
- Pool manpower resources of scientific and technical competence of the Sub-Saharan African countries to start coordinating the common objectives of working together,
- To create opportunities for IHP National Committees to work together for the common objective of solving water issues and problems like flood, sedimentation, water degradation in the region.
- Establishment of comprehensive inventory base for water quality and quantity.
Recommendations from the Conference and report will be presented at the forthcoming Fourth World Water Forum (4WWF) taking place in Mexico, March 2006 for the international community to hear the voice and view point on issues related to water that are of particular concern to the African region, especially Sub-Saharan Africa.
PAPER III: “ORGANISATION OF THE CONFERENCE AND MEETING”, BY OLUFEMI ODUMOSU
This presentation was made to enlighten the participants at the Conference on the organization of the Conference and Meeting. The Scientific Conference is being organized as parallel two-day sessions on 27th – 28th February, 2006. There is a panel meeting on 1st March, 2006, with the participation of AMCOW-NEPAD-IHP National Committees and Donors/ Development Partners for the purpose of identifying regional proposals and projects. The Regional Meeting of IHP National Committees in Africa commences in the afternoon of same day, 1st March, 2006 till 2nd March 2006. The respective venues at the Transcorp Hilton Hotel, the Congress Hall, in which the Plenary sessions commenced, the Lagos/Osun Conference Hall, where the Parallel session on Surface water issues and the Kano Conference Hall, for the Groundwater session were also indicated to the participants. The panel meeting of 1st March, 2006 and the follow-up Regional IHP Meeting were held at the Lagos/Osun Conference Hall.
PAPER IV: “COOPERATIVE AND INTEGRATED RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT FOR WATER SECURITY IN AFRICA”, BY PROF. LEKAN OYEBANDE
The paper elaborated on variations of climate change in arid and semi-arid Africa and identified key water issues in Africa as follows: –
- Lack of adequate water and sanitation,
- Balancing supply with the demand aspect,
- Integrated water resources development and management, even after 30 years of the operations of River Basins,
- Water stress in African River Basins.
The paper stressed that appropriate and effective management and development of water resources in the River Basins should be based on natural hydrological boundaries rather than on administrative boundaries. The presentation also gave details of: –
- Flood occurrences in Nigeria for the years- 1999, 1994 and 1988 and the resulting casualties from the hazard. Drought and zero flow in River Niger at Niamey, Niger in 1985 and occurrence of rainstorms in Senegal and Mauritania in 2002,
- Water availability and distribution in major ecological zones in Africa,
- Poor governance and management of water resources in Africa.
The author suggested that sustainable development and management could be achieved through equity and efficiency in water resources allocation as well as through integrated management approaches. He also noted that River Basins in Africa have some of the largest rivers and that 17 of the 52 world river basins are located in Africa as well as transboundary aquifers. It outlined the essential functions of river basin management as:
- Distribution of water supply
- Monitoring of water quality
- Protection of watershed and ecosystem, etc.
It maintained that only a few percentages of the people living in rural Africa have access to water supply and sanitation adding that, improvement in water wisdom could be achieved through data, information and training reforms in Africa.
PAPER V: “TRANSBOUNDARY AQUIFER SYSTEMS IN AFRICA”, BY YOUBA
The paper on transboundary aquifer system in Africa was delivered by the Executive Secretary, OSS, Mr. Youba Sokona. The presentation dwelt on the transboundary aquifers in Africa with main reference to North Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) being shared by the countries of Tunisia, Algeria and Libya.
It highlighted key issues on aquifer management with respect to key transboundary aquifers in Africa to include: –
- Database management on the aquifer system and information as a basic tool to convince policy and decision makers,
- Levels of consultation mechanism for joint management of the resource,
- Putting in place common monitoring networks to maximize resources of countries,
- Platform for capacity building for the training of technicians at different levels.
PAPER VI: “MANAGING HYDROCLIMATIC DISATERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVE IN AFRICA”, BY DR KODWO ANDAH
The presentation made by Dr. Kodwo Andah focused on:
- How to increase our capacity building on disaster management in the light of the fact that we cannot prevent the occurrence of hydroclimatic hazards.
- Managing the risks from such extremes of climate variability, and
- Mitigation of the risks.
The paper identified hydroclimatic hazards in Africa as mainly floods and droughts and classified each of the hydroclimatic hazards into different categories. It maintained that it is not easy to predict drought through hydrological forecasting and went ahead to give the impact of these hazards on water resources infrastructures and reduction of hydropower generation.
It stressed the need to put in place strategies to prevent and control the impact of these disasters and enumerated the strategies as follows:
- Increasing our adaptive capacities to enhance our socio-economic activities,
- Installation of devices for early warning systems,
- Institutional arrangement,
- Understanding of ITCZ and its triggering mechanism,
- Study of ocean temperature to predict El-Nino phenomenon, and
- Effective communication of such scientific information to our policy and decision makers.
SUMMARY OF DISCUSSIONS
- Policy and decision makers should accord water a priority status to improve access to water supply in rural and urban Africa.
- Equitable and effective allocation of water resources could be achieved by the River Basins in Africa through the recognition of hydrological boundaries rather than by administrative boundaries.
- Sustainable management of Africa’s transboundary aquifers bearing on the experience of the Sahara and Sahel Observatory (OSS) in North Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) could be achieved through joint consultation mechanism cooperation among the countries sharing such transboundary aquifers.
- To achieve the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals in water sector alone, Africa needs to train/increase its current manpower number in water resources by about 300 percent in the next 10 years.
- To overcome the negative impacts of drought and flood in Africa, African countries must adopt adaptive capacity building to attain sustainable socio-economic development.
PAPER VII: “CLIMATE CHANGE, VULNERABILITY, CLASSIFICATION AND IMPACT REDUCTION IN NIGERIA’S WATER SECTOR”, BY PROFESSOR D.O. ADEFOLALU
In his presentation, the author stated that: –
- Climate change will lead to more precipitation, but also more evaporation. In general, this acceleration of the hydrological cycle will result in a wetter world.
- Precipitation will probably increase in some areas, and decline in others.
- The climate models are still unable to make precise regional predictions.
- The drier the climate, the more sensitive is the local hydrology. Relatively small changes in temperature and precipitation could cause relatively large changes in runoffs.
- New patterns of runoff and evaporation will also affect natural ecosystems.
- Fresh water ecosystems will respond to altered flood regimes and water levels.
- Changes in water temperatures and in the thermal structures of freshwaters could affect the survival and growth of certain organisms and the diversity and productivity of ecosystems.
- Rising sea level will invade coastal freshwater supply. Coastal aquifers may be damaged by saline intrusions as salty groundwater rises.
Conflicts could be sparked off by additional pressures. The links among climate change, water availability, food production, population and economic growth are many and complex, but climate change is likely to add to economic and political tensions. Improved water resources management will help to reduce vulnerabilities. New supply must be developed and existing supplies used more efficiently.
PAPER VIII: “VARIABILITE DES PARAMETERS HYDROLOGIQUES DU NIGER SUPERIEUR” (“VARIABILITIES OF HYDROLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN THE UPPER NIGER”), BY BRAHIMA COULIBALY
In his presentation, the author stated that River Niger crosses Mali from South West to North
East, a distance of 1750km (about 42% of its total length), making a large zone of inner delta at
the centre of the country before entering the sub desertic zone. Six of the eight administrative
regions of the country are either totally or partially wetted by River Niger and its tributaries.
The hydrology of the River Niger in Mali is made up of four major tributaries (Niger, Tinkisso, Niandan and Milo). The River receives Sankrani and Bani. The River Basin is conventionally sub-divided into three parts, namely: – a). Upper Niger at the Ke Macina, b). Interior delta of the Ke Macina at Koryoume, and c). Middle Niger of Keryoume at the Nigerien boarder
The paper went further to describe the climatic characteristics of the Upper Niger basin which have resemblance with those of Northern Guinea, and alternate between a dry season dominated by dry winds coming from Sahara (Harmattan) and a rainy season of 3 to 6 months (between May and October) with wet winds coming from Gulf of Guinea (Monsoon). In the Basin, highest temperatures are recorded in April and May, whereas the minimum are observed in December to January period. Temperature which is the main factor responsible for evaporation could be as high as 40oC.
Another hydrological parameter considered by the paper is rainfall which, according to the author, varies from 1200mm in the North to 2000mm in the South in the Guinea, whereas in Mali, it varies from less than 500mm in the North to more than 1100mm in the South.
Concluding, the paper examined the flow regime in the Basin which is summarized thus:
River Niger in Bamako is made up of tributaries coming from Guinea.
Observation on Bani is based largely on rains that fall in the north of Cote d’Ivoire and also in the Sikasso Region in the Southern Mali.
It is therefore obvious that changes in the rainfall will affect the flows of River Niger.
PAPER IX: “URBAN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION IN NIGERIA”, BY PROF. CHARLES AMEN OKUOFU
In his presentation, he stated that water is a very valuable commodity, and is essential for life and that availability of safe and affordable supply of drinking water is a basic human necessity. He noted that water is a pre-requisite for growth and development of future generations and gave the uses of water as for Domestic purposes, Productive ventures like farming and livestock production in rural area and/or Horticulture and cottage micro-enterprise in peri-urban and urban areas. The author explained that: –
- Shortages, poor quality and unreliable sources of supply of water could affect people very adversely.
- Water can become unsafe through pollution and contamination, and water also serves as an easy root for the transmission of diseases.
- Due to the fact that water is indispensable, there were organized agencies before and after Nigeria gained independence. These agencies and institutions provide water, maintain and operate water facilities. In Nigeria, the provision of water and sanitation facilities is the responsibility of the three levels of government: Federal, State, and Local governments.
- The Federal Ministry of Water Resources formulates and co-ordinates national water policies, manages water resources and approves development projects,
- The River Basin Development Authorities (RBDAs) are supposed to plan and develop water resources, irrigation works, collect hydrological, hydrogeological and meteorological data, etc.
The paper highlighted key issues, problems and challenges as:
- The operational efficiency of State Water Agencies (SWAs) is low.
- The unaccounted-for water in 1998 was as high as 63%.
- Insufficient financial resources, unmotivated staff, and politics are some of the institutional problems the water agencies have to cope with.
- Physical infrastructural problems like old and leaking pipes, unreliable and unstable electricity supply, fuel and treatment chemical shortages, and the poor states of their treatment work, etc.
The author stated that government has spent huge sums of money on water and water-related programmes, extended technical assistance to state water agencies to improve their operation, etc. In all of these, he advised that major structural reforms are necessary and that in line with this, a National Water Supply and Sanitation Policy for Nigeria was adopted in January 2000.
The problems, according to the author were that Nigeria does not have any strategic plan for sanitation. Waste disposal as a whole, drainage and wastewater treatment proceed haphazardly.
The Water Supply and Sanitation Policy links sanitation development with water supply in the Ministry of Water Resources. The Sanitation Units in the Ministries of Health, Works and Housing have been transferred to the Ministry of Environment. Other issues related to payments are metering, levels of service, etc.
The author concluded the presentation by stating that: –
- Although there has been a growing consensus that water supply and sanitation is a basic need, many people in Nigeria still lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation.
- There is also the problem of acute shortage of funds essentially because of poor cost recovery in all kinds of water systems in Nigeria.
- The factors responsible for this include the reluctance to charge fully for water and lack of clarity at national level with respect to responsibility for sanitation.
And recommended: –
- Stakeholders’ participation in water supply/sanitation, the operation, maintenance and management of these schemes by community members, the choice of technology should be based on its capability of delivering the intended level of service in an effective, equitable, efficient, sustainable and replicable.
- Demand assessment is central to an effective water supply and sanitation programme
- Capacity building component.
- Where there is little demand, sensitize the people through hygiene and sanitation promotion first, so as to create demand.
- There is need to develop a well-coordinated action plan to remove duplication and smoothen out overlaps in the operations of stakeholder Ministries like Water Resources, Environment and Health in particular.
Paper X: “HYDROLOGICAL EXTREMES: THE BANE OF ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS IN AFRICA”, BY DR (MRS) M.A. OGUNJOBI-OYELEKE
The author stated that Africa’s environmental problems are diverse. Some of these includes
erosion, deforestation, desertification, drought and sedimentation. As stated by the author, some of the causes include lack of appropriate technology, policies, management techniques, human activities such as population pressure, non-enforcement of laws, poverty, etc. She further stressed that disaster effects normally affect water and other resources, leading to losses and death.
The paper dwelt on two major water-related disasters of flood and drought, and their causes (direct and indirect – human activities), and the attendant destructive impacts. The author posited that while preparedness measures to combat these disasters are still inadequate, the challenge is the will to invest in environmental issues to achieve disaster reduction and long term economic recovery.
The author identified flood incident as a situation where land not normally covered with water is
inundated by intense rainfall and its interaction with unregulated human activities. She stated that
flood incident is usually severe, causing death and physical damage resulting in
heavy economic losses, which i the case with most part of the African continent.
The paper listed predisposing factors responsible for flooding to include: River systems (Niger, Benue, Cross, Littoral, etc) which have enormous impact on flood situation in the country. Flood plains, which are attractive for human settlements and development despite flood risks. Human interference without adequate impact assessment, thereby creating problems. Management or mismanagement problems e.g. uncoordinated regulation of dams/reservoirs especially in the north eastern, north central and north western parts of the country.
The paper went further to x-ray case histories and incidences of floods, giving dates of occurrence, magnitude of losses and level of relief given by relevant government agencies.
It also explained that drought, the other side of hydrological extreme, is a consequence of the combination of rainfall deficit, reduced stream flows i.e. too little water in arid and semi-arid areas. Adding that no continent is free from droughts, thought recently most severe ones occur in Africa.
The various drought incidents that occurred in Kenya with their attendant effects were graphically presented. The paper stated that more than 80% of the landmass is arid and semi-arid, receiving low unevenly distributed rainfall.
The paper outlined the challenges posed by flood and drought disaster to sustainable development as follows: –
- Socio-economic life fatally affected.
- Flood and drought remain on the increase.
- Untold hardship/death.
- People reduced to the state of destitution and dependency.
- Productivity and economically impaired.
Poverty reduction continues to be a mirage as Africa is confronted with economic/social crisis. Hence, low economic growth and ability to invest in implementation of environmental sustainability programmes.
Concluding, the author stated that recent efforts on funding, institutional framework and policies on flood and drought may not yield the desired result if there is no concerted effort and political will to implement Action Plan and Programmes, hence, the following suggestions:
- Awareness creation, education/mobilization to sensitize and educate communities/ stakeholders and stimulate financial commitment of all.
- Disaster forecasting/early warning system should be established
- Institutional cooperation, need for synergy between institutions.
- Promotion of private sector-led participation via government.
- International/national support.
PAPER XI : “RISQUE DE SUREXPLOITATION D`UN SYST`EME AQUIFERE COTIER: CAS D`UN SYSTEME AQUIF`ERE DE GODOMEY BE`NIN M`ERIDIONAL”, BY DR. BOUKARI MOUSSA
The presentation is about the Godomey aquifer system. The System which provides Cotonou town (1,000,000), the biggest town of Benin Republic was modeled. The goal of the work is to promote a sustainable exploitation of the system, as it is already threatened by saline water intrusion. The results of the study showed that the intrusion of saline water came from Nokoue brackish water lake. To prevent salinization of the wells at the field, scenarios were simulated.
One of these scenarios concerns the application of the project yield of 2011 pumping. The result shows that this scenario will cause a salinization of the wells field. The area of study has four seasons and is sandwiched between the Atlantic Ocean and a lake. These factors affect the aquifer as well as the climatic changes. Mudflow software was used in analyzing the samples collected and that if the result of the report was used, the encroachment of saline water into the aquifer will be reduced.
What model is being applied? Under what conditions were they applied.
What is the level of characterization and design based on the results? Is there any proposal for protection of the aquifer?
What methods were used to approach the results? The aquifer is near the lake, is the lake having effect on the aquifer?
It is a preliminary report with not much progress so far.
Historical aspect has also affected the report; data used is what is available since 1991-2000. Traditional wells were used, and the problem of recharge was present. Absence of maps for the area under study is a limiting factor. Climatic change has also affected it. Protection of the aquifer is a difficult problem as the wells are deep up to about 130m. They are affected by pollution, and much has to be done in sample collection. The lake is influencing the groundwater.
PAPER XII: “HYDROCHEMICAL AND ISOTOPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF GROUND-WATER IN BIRIMIAN AQUIFERS, GHANA”, BY BRUCE BANOENG-YAKUBO
The paper examined the generation of Hydrological and Hydro chemical data from drilling activities especially from the Eastern part of Ghana. However, not much of the data obtained has been utilized effectively in establishing recharge regimes for better management of the aquifer systems. The hydro chemical character has not been established. As a result, it is difficult to predict the quality of water and recharge system in that terrain in Ghana.
The paper intends to: –
- Establish the recharge regime of the groundwaters in the study area,
- Identify the hydro chemical character of the groundwater,
- Assess the water quality and its relationship to the geology and land use, and
- Trace the probable provenance of groundwater in the study area by evaluating the water chemistry and stable isotope compositions of groundwaters.
THE GEOLOGY OF STUDY AREA:
The paper described the geology of the study area and defined the Birimian system a major part of the West African Craton and underlies nearly one-sixth of the total area of Ghana. It has been folded, metamorphosed and in some places, assimilated by granitoid bodies.
The rock types present in the Lower Birimian are greywacks with turbidite features, phyllites, slates, schists, weakly metamorphosed tuffs and lavas.
The author noted that: –
- The occurrence of groundwater in the Birimian aquifers can be categorized as weathered rock aquifer which is fracture-related, fractured quartz vein and fractured rock aquifer.
- It is worth-noting that these aquifer types are related and can occur together.
- Groundwater flow in the Birimian Terrain ranges from local to intermediate.
The paper gave the parameters determined as: –
- Temperature, pH, Electrical Conductivity, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, SO42-, Cl–, Strontium isotopic composition was measured on an 8-collector Fisons Sector 54-30 mass spectrometer.
- TDS varies from 31, 94 -68.33mg/1 and noted that the application of hydro chemical and isotopic characterization methods can be used to understand provenance of groundwater in aquifers in various geological terrains.
- The approach can be used to manage groundwater and also provide a basis for the understanding of water–rock interaction.
It was observed that: –
The Geology of Ghana is similar to that of Nigeria.
Yields vary in the quartz veins and are lower in the granitoids.
PAPER XIII: “A REVIEW OF THE STATE OF GROUNDWATER EVALUATION AND EXPLOITATION IN NIGERIA”, BY DR. M.E. OFFODILE
In this paper, the general overview of groundwater was articulated. According to the author:
There is a heavy reliance on groundwater which has necessitated the need for evaluation.
The continuous use of available water resources requires efficient and adequate management system. Indiscriminate groundwater exploitation has affected the water budget equation.
There should be a balance in the extraction and recharge of water.
The paper outlined the functions of the River Basins in Nigeria as follows:
- To undertake comprehensive development of groundwater resources for multipurpose use.
- Undertake watershed management schemes for flood and erosion control
- Construct and maintain dams, dyke, well or boreholes irrigation and drainage systems.
- Develop irrigation schemes for production of crops and livestock.
- Provide water from reservoirs, well and boreholes for urban and rural water schemes.
- Control pollution in rivers and lakes in the Authority’s areas in accordance with nationally laid down standards.
- Resettle persons affected by works and schemes specified, and
- Defined types of River Basins as follows: Intra-River basin, Trans Basin and Transnational Basins
Intra Basins aquifers: small Basins and small aquifer units. Trans Basinal aquifers, coastal
mangrove alluvium, Benin Formation, River alluvium and Kerri Kerri formation
Transnational Basins – Chad and Sokoto Basins
Groundwater resources evaluation should be given equal attention as oil and solid minerals.
There should be one law guiding groundwater management not just Federal and State laws.
Government policies towards water management do not always consider research results.
The ratio between the Basement and Sedimentary in Nigeria is 50:50.
Government policies if implemented would go a long way in encouraging researchers.
Organized private sector could provide adequate financial assistance.
PAPER XIV: “ON SHARED RIVER BASINS – CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA”,
BY PROF. S. MUSTAFA
The paper “On Shared River Basins – Case Study of Nigeria” was delivered by Prof. S. Mustafa. The participants were briefed on Transboundary wetland in Nigeria and shared Transboundary basins and three wetland areas which Nigeria shared with ten other riparian countries. He emphasized that there is wide disparity between the population and economies of the other riparian states. The paper also highlighted the River Basin Development Authorities, their functions and decrees establishing them.
The author also examined how the RBDAs are faring, the challenges facing them which he said, are also similar with other countries. The paper stressed on the issues of water sharing, what criteria to adopt, what estimate to be made and what need to be done.
In conclusion, the author stated that: –
- The problems of water sharing of both inter and intra basin resources among riparian countries and states will be the greatest challenges facing Nigeria’s 12 RBDAs now and in future.
- This is a result of expected increase in water demand and pattern of usage as the population and economies of the region grow.
- There is the need to prepare an Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) master plan.
PAPER XV: “THE ROLE OF LAND USE AND LAND USE CHANGE IN HYDROLGICAL EXTREME: SEPARATING MYTH AND REALITY”, BY PROF. G. JEWITT
The paper was based on the role of land use and land use changes in Hydrological extremes,
vegetation impacts on the hydrological cycle and Scientific understanding of land use and water
The presenter examined the impact of land use on low flow, land use and hydrological extreme, and Management of land use in water resources management.
In conclusion, the presenter outlined the constraints to consideration of land use in water
resources management which includes: –
- Measurement and estimation of water,
- Use of a land based activity,
- Understanding links between Green and Blue water flow,
- Managing the landscape (GWF) within water resources management means, and
- Integrated land and water management.
PAPER XVI: “PROCESS OF THE SETTING UP THE STRUCTURE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCES OF MADAGASCAR”, BY HELISON ROMUALD RAZAFINDRAKOTO
The paper generally focused on the process of setting up the structure of integrated
management of water resources of Madagascar. The presenter maintained that there is need for decentralization policy and close working relationship between bodies and Ministerial
department and outlined the strategies as: –
- Consulting with relevant actors at regional and international level,
- Engaging consultants to develop concepts and project, and
- Operating as an independent agency.
PAPER XVII: “IMPLICATION OF LAND USE DYNAMICS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE AND VARIABILITY IN NIGERIA”, BY: DR. AYOBAMI T. SALAMI
The paper highlighted the implication of land use dynamics for climate change. It also examined the trend of deforestation in Nigeria using a case study and proposes a geo-spatial data frame work for GHGs and land use documentation in Nigeria. The author outlined certain environmental changes in Nigeria;
- By 2000, tropical forest and woodland covered less than 15% of the land mass.
- Deforestation is progressing at an alarming rate.
- Conflicting figures are frequently quoted.
The paper concluded that: –
- Fine scale regional and local information is required for credible predictions or projections.
- A significant missing component in most climatic simulations as at now is land use change and biosphere –atmosphere.
- Feedback from land use needs to be empirically investigated, documented and properly organized for regular updating and monitoring.
PAPER XVIII: “EXTREME HYDROLOGICAL EVENTS IN THE RIVER NIGER BASIN”, BY ENGR. I.A. OLOMODA
The presentation centered on low flow high flow events, impacts of extreme flow events in the
river Niger Basin and the way forward which he demonstrated with charts and graphs to back up his presentation.
The paper further highlighted the orientation of NBA, the objectives of Niger-HYCOS.
At the end of the paper, the following points were suggested by the presenter as the way forward:
- Facilitation of co-operation among the NBA countries,
- Stimulation of international co-operation in assessing hydrological processes related to climatic change,
- Assisting of research groups and institutions in area of River Niger hydrology,
- Provision of flood warning systems,
- Rainfall prediction product, and
- Training and capacity building.
PAPER XIX: “THE SUMMARY OF KEY WATER ISSUES IN AFRICA AND THE USE OF GEO-SPATIAL TECHNIQUES IN WATER REOURCES MANAGEMENT”, BY RAKIYA ABDULLAHI
The author focused on problems affecting water resources, challenges and the use of geo-spatial techniques for Water Resources Management (WRM). The author emphasized that “more than 300 million people, out of which 42 per cent of Africa’s population still does not have access to safe water”. The author further enumerated hydrological applications of Earth Observation (EO) data which are wetlands mapping, watershed management and flood monitoring. He made the following conclusions: -.
- Water is a precious resource,
- In Africa, it can be a matter of life and death,
- It can also be a matter of economic survival.
The author enjoined all Africa to be concerned and involved in the conservation, protection and management of Africa’s water resources to improve its efficient, equitable and sustainable use to the benefit of all.
Finally, the author stated that no amount of financial resources can solve Africa’s water challenges without firm commitment by its political leaders and decision makers. She stated that efficient utilization of financial resources can only be achieved when a basic system of effective governance, including transparency, accountability and subsidiary, are in place to guide public function.
PAPER XX : “L’ETAT DES EAUX SOUTERRAINES ET LES GRANDES ENSEMBLES HYDROLOGIQUE DU BASSIN VERSANT DU FLEUVE CONG” BY PROF WILLY-ETTIENNE MUSOYI BAYIPOKE
The paper outlined the main issues as: –
- No recent research on the Congo Basin as the only document on the pre-Cambrian formation was prepared by colonial researchers in 1944.
- Three types of aquifers are found in Congo Basin – generalized, continuous and discontinuous.
- Geological analysis revealed that the country has groundwater, and till date, groundwater research is still the concern of the Ministry responsible for Groundwater.
- Surface water recharges Groundwater within the Congo Basin.
- There is pollution of Groundwater due to mining in the Katanga area as well as by human wastes.
Other factors affecting water availability include desertification with encroachment of the Kalahari and climatic changes. He called on researchers and funding agencies in water resources to come to the DRC and assist in developing strategies for the development and management of water resources in the country.
- Considering the importance of the Congo Basin, the IHP would initiate a research work similar to the FRIEND Project in Congo basin.
- There are documents that show the impact of pollution due to faecal pollution and mining in the Katanga area of Congo. When these documents are available, the facts will become clear.
- Public enlightenment is needed in this area, as it is a common phenomenon.
- In addition, aquifer parameters are mostly obtained from pumping data but there is a need to have observation wells over a large aerial extent to determine these parameters.
PAPER XXI: “EVALUATING GROUNDWATER RESOURCES OF NIGERIA”,
BY PROF. O. AJAYI
The author dwelt on the state of Groundwater Resources in Nigeria, stating that Nigeria’s Groundwater resources potentials are within eight hydrological zones, out of which, five are internationally shared with neighboring countries, adding further that in the distribution of these resources, there is a ten-fold increase in drainage density in the Southern parts of the country when compared with the Northern fringe. This, he said, was due to variations in rainfall.
Groundwater, the author opined, is found to be safer than surface water, especially concerning pollution vulnerability. The author noted that there are a few problems associated with groundwater e.g. salinity in the arid zones.
During the presentation, results of hydrological and hydro-geological studies were presented, including data on groundwater potential and well yields in the eight hydrological zones.
The paper concluded with the recommendation that: –
- With the widely publicized global warming and associated effects on the Groundwater resource, there is huge and urgent need to begin to address the issue of GROUNDWATER security.
- Groundwater Monitoring be given urgent and continuous attention henceforth.
Evaluation process should come up with a conclusive way forward and should not be done solely as a data collection programme.
Groundwater mining is inevitable, but the issue is how to utilize the mined aquifers to our advantage?
Researchers should look into ways of storing water in these empty aquifers instead of building more dams.
The Groundwater community should speak and discuss with the surface water community and vice versa.
There are no records on Groundwater withdrawals and in spite of the fact that we cannot quantify the volume of water withdrawal from the aquifer systems, there could be a systematic monitoring of the water levels and quality of all boreholes in all countries in Africa.
The cost can be factored into budgets for rural/peri-urban water development. In that way, we can have an idea as to how far we are stressing our aquifers systems, barring inefficiencies in the boreholes because of construction problems.
We need to start from somewhere, and the time is now.
There is more availability of Groundwater in the Nigeria Delta than in other parts of the country and the unavailability of groundwater withdrawal record is due to the failure of the governments to provide water supply to the people via surface water resource.
These have brought groundwater development down to the level of individuals with the result that hundreds of water wells are drilled in the region annually especially with increasing population as well as development interventions of oil companies in their host communities.
There is thus a proliferation of boreholes and people take things for granted because it is easy and relatively cheap to drill a well and there is no control anywhere not minding any surprising phenomenon which may include among other things; the impact of excessive withdrawal on closely located water wells. For instance, whilst water table in some parts of the region during the dry months of February through April can be as high as 10 ft or less, it can be as low as 60 ft or more in some parts during the same period.
Water is life. It is part of food and because of the failure of governments to provide safe drinking water; poor rural and urban communities have no choice but to use shallow wells as a matter of survival.
Participants called upon African Governments to make clean drinking water provision a serious priority need of communities. They should mobilize resources with the enthusiasm like they do for international matches.
PAPER XXII: “THE TRANSBOUNDARY DIAGNOSTIC ANALYSES OF THE AQUIFER OF THE COASTAL BASIN OF TOGO”, BY DR KISSAO GNANDI
The paper outlined that Ghana, Nigeria and Togo share the same Precambrian formation.
Transboundary Analysis of surface water shows increase of pollution especially of the lagoons with the proliferation of aquatic plants within the basin.
The Transboundary Diagnostic Analyses tend to solve problems of water availability in quantity and quality. However, lack of understanding of the aquifer geometry, lack of a holistic approach to pollution issues, saline water intrusion, absence of aquifer protection resulting in over-exploitation, inadequate skilled manpower, and the data collection attendants not well remunerated are causes of failures of so many initiatives.
Mining activities also present a problem as they release heavy metals. Pollution of these waters with industrial effluents has led to health consequences such as the incidence of fluorosis, manifesting as dental disorders and discoloration among people.
Emerging problems that are environmental in nature, deforestation, and Climate Change, which affects water resources potentials, and socio-economic problems among others were also identified as culprits.
RECOMMENDATION: The paper recommended that:
- A national plan of action with information exchange between the concerned countries and emphasized the need for training, establishment of legal framework and a comprehensive data bank.
- The donor agencies such as UNESCO consider treating the coastal aquifers as an endangered hydro-geological unit just as the Chad Basin, Illumeden Basin etc., considering their peculiar problems.
- Coastal aquifers should be seen as one huge hydro-geological unit cutting across national borders.
The problems or challenges are the same in all the West African Coastal Regions, the problem of oil pollution in the Niger Delta, Saline water intrusion in all the West African countries and specifically mining water pollution in Togo.
PAPER XXIII “THE AQUIFERS AROUND LAKE CHAD BASIN”,
BY DR. G. E. OTEZE
The paper stated that the Lake Chad Basin is the largest inland basin in Africa and one of the largest in the world, which has been in recession since 1970. The Chad formation has upper, middle and lower zones extending from Biu (Nigeria) to Fava Largeau (Chad). Since the lake has not dried up till this day, research suggests that the Kerri-kerri formation is probably contributing to the recharge of the Lake.
- Groundwater experts, particularly those from Nigeria, to agree on terminologies used in describing the various layers of the Chad formation aquifers.
- The lower zone is not recharged from anywhere but there is no evidence to show that the middle zone is recharging the upper and the lower zone from aquiclude binding it.
- Research based on Carbon-14 dating showed the age of the water in the lower zone to be 37,000 years, while that of the middle zone 44,000.
- The TDS is 180 -300 in the lower zone, while in the middle it is 2,000 and the
mobility of water is more in the middle zone.
PAPER XXIV: “UNESCO-ISARM AND AFRICAN AQUIFER SYSTEMS”,
BY DR BO APPLEGREN
The paper outlined the main issues as: –
- The world is gradually recognizing the importance of Groundwater due to the depletion of surface water resources.
- A multi-disciplinary approach is required in the five focal areas influencing scientific, hydro-geological, legal aspects, socio-economic, institutional and environmental aspects.
- There are 38 principal aquifers in Africa shared between the 38 countries. A country such as Tanzania has seven of these aquifers; Nigeria also tops the list of countries with similar concentrations of aquifers.
Five regions have so far benefited from the Transboundary Aquifer project including the Iullemeden and the SASS, which were on-going within Nigeria, Mali and Niger. The SADC countries have successfully applied the sub-regional approach to the management of aquifers.
The author highlighted the history of UNESCO-ISARM activities, which showed that Africa is embracing the development of the project beginning with the ISARM in Tripoli in 1999 and the ISARM- Africa in 2000.
GENERAL CONTRIBUTIONS: –
UNESCO supported the transboundary activities for countries in North Africa, but little development is being felt in Sub-Saharan Africa. UNESCO is therefore called upon to support programmes/activities in Sub-Saharan countries that are also faced with drought related problems.
PAPER XXV: “REMOTE SENSING MANAGEMENT OF TRANSBOUNDARY AQUIFERS IN AFRICA”, BY DR S. SARADETH
The AQUIFER Project has a geographic scope of the Iullemeden area and SASS.
The project is to be implemented in three (3) phases – Currently, it is in the 2nd phase of operation.
The project has the following partnership arrangement: 6 countries known as User countries, User coordinator – OSS, Industry partners from Europe, Local providers e.g. AGRHYMET.
He extolled the merits of the Earth observation as follows:
- Can be used to map large areas
- No national boundaries involved
- Objective assessment
- Radar usage – can penetrate clouds
Limits of the Earth observation requires ground truth and ground data/ancillary data. GIS is not a stand-alone tool.
Recommendation – The author recommended the use of GIS and Remote Sensing in the development and management of water resources.
OBSERVATIONS/COMMENTS ON THE PAPER: –
- Good progress on the AQUIFER (TIGER) Project. However, one would wish that the next phase of the project would take along local institutions like NASRDA of Nigeria.
- Nigeria’s Satellite – 1 is part of the Disaster Management Constellation, and hence there is potential for its use for the project.
- The project is a good one and that the 2nd phase extended to Benin Republic, which is also included in the Iullemeden Aquifer System.
- Accessibility to the data is poor, especially in government establishments. Efforts should be made to improve this situation, as access to the Internet is still not universal to all concerned.
- People are prepared to pay for access to such data, only if it could be made available.
- There is a need to meet more often with partners – the website is on CD-ROM and will be made available on request. (Website: http://www2.gaf.de/Aquifer/)
- Calculated parameters from crop water models and coefficients are used to obtain groundwater parameters. Resolution varies with a range from .5m to 1km.
PAPER XXVI: “SUDAN WATER MANAGEMENT CRISIS”, BY ABDALLA AHMED
The author made it clear that water management in most of the African countries is similar except for the differences in aquifer storage. He stressed that Sudan shares groundwater resources with most of the Arab nations and have similar water crisis affecting the nations.
He maintained that water management crisis has two main problems-viz:- environmental challenges, which include urban activities and water quality, sedimentation and aquatic weeds. These affect irrigation practice and hydro-power generation. The speaker also stressed that siltation is also a serious problem to reservoirs in Sudan and this makes Sudan to face a very challenging environmental threat.
PAPER XXVII: “WATER RESOURCES OF RIVER BASINS IN NIGERIA”, PROF. K. SCHOENEICH
The paper discussed the abundant potential of both surface and groundwater resources of Nigeria, which is still underutilized. It also examined the dynamic and static water resources potential as well as Water Budget and Basin Development Strategies in Nigeria.
In summary, the author averred that Nigeria has abundant water resources potential of about 538 km3/s which stretches from southern to northern parts of the country. He maintained that Nigeria’s abundant water resources, which could be used for large scale irrigation and commercial agriculture/supply of drinking water, were grossly underutilized.
PAPER XXVIII: “SUGGESTED RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD AND DROUGHT FOR ADOPTION IN AFRICA AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES” BY MR. J.A. SHAMONDA
The author stated that the paper was based on a draft report submitted to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the outcome of an extensive research conducted while working as a WMO expert on “Risk Management Strategies” for the Commission for Hydrology (CHy).
Summarizing, the paper identified eight (8) options of risk management strategies which could be employed in solving floods and droughts problems in sub-Saharan Africa. Some of these risk abatement options have been practiced and found to be applicable in developed countries and, as such, have been suggested for implementation in the WMO focal project like Global Environment Facility (GEF) and Hydrological Cycle Observing Systems (HYCOS) for Africa. These options are as follows:
- That National Hydrological Service (NHS) should show interest in the use and management of basin land, and be part of the government organ in the development of broad-based frameworks for preservation of the basin’s land.
- That countries joined together by trans-boundaries rivers and lakes should come together to form a basin cooperation and collectively establish an inter-governmental organization that will foster and facilitate coordinated development and management of the shared basin water, land and other natural resources.
- That NHS, as a government functionary for monitoring, management and coordinating development of the county’s water resources should have it as part of its statutory duties to produce inundation maps of flood risk zones of the floodplains, to enhance information that are required as guide for management and development along floodplain. Production of Inundation maps of risk zones of the floodplains is a direction towards pre-disaster prevention and a planning for disaster assistance programme of hazards that are associated with flood.
- That NHSs should develop, on regular basis, programme of enlightenment to all national users of drainage land and water resources and stakeholders of the resources on the best practices in the art of use and management of the resources in a drainage basin as a way to minimize hazards in the cause of event of natural disasters of flood in each of the nation’s sub-hydrological basins.
- In collaboration with the state’s legal functionaries, NHSs should develop clear and functional legal frameworks that should specify rights and obligations of all stakeholders in the basin. This will ensure a firm commitment to good water and land-use governance as well as minimize conflicts for sustainable development as strategy option towards development of risk management in the basin
- Establishment of a special common purse of participatory contribution by all the stakeholders and the communities in the basin with a view to use the fund to accede to losses in the case of any disaster event. This initiative is an effective post disaster management strategy toward building a disaster shock-absorber and effective-relief capability to mop up the impacts of natural disaster
- In the development of a robust management strategic measure, a pool of ideas from different backgrounds with a common mission and goal, especially in fighting natural hazards, provides a world that is more resilient to disaster.
- NHSs should therefore encourage collaboration of different scientific discipline to work out action plan to respond to the impacts of flood hazards through inter-disciplinary and inter-sectoral partnership of all institutions on activities relating to development and management of basin’s resources.
- NHSs should take it as a responsibility to introduce scientific and technological innovations in data collection, techniques of processing and dissemination of information and flood warning alert as man is still struggling to cope with understanding the cause of climate variability, prediction of extreme climate and water related events and degradation in environment
The author further advocated for the establishment of Nigerian Hydrological Agency (NHA) which will be mandated with the responsibility of overseeing hydrological activities and to proffer strategies that are geared toward controlling these extreme events as well as limiting/preventing their future occurrences. The issue of poverty was stressed as the main hindrance to the technological development in Africa. Any step taken at averting flood and drought events will greatly assist in achieving sustainable water and food security in Africa. This will go a long way to reduce the poverty levels.
Concluding, he noted that due consideration to risk management strategies is one of the ways to achieve sustainable water development and management in Africa.
- For Africa to appropriately tackle the extreme events there is the need for regional cooperation and mutual understanding in the planning and management of transboundary river systems.
- Physical processes such as sedimentation and siltation along major rivers have to be controlled from the source, as operation regulation through proper reservoir operation will significantly reduce sediment loading into the rivers and subsequent flooding of river plains.
- Emphasis should also be placed on data collection activities, such as hydrological and hydrometeorological data collection on a regular basis and monitoring campaign of flow regimes, which remain the key to successful tackling of the extremes events.
- The establishment of NHS agency was not seen as the sole solution to the centrality of hydrological services nor controlling the extreme events.
- Hydrological services institutions were advised to take interest in the production of inundation maps.
- Problems arising from these extreme events were not limited in scope to hydrology, but equally inclusive of the actions/inactions of such institutions, stakeholders and establishments like Environment, Agriculture, Science and Technology and such other agencies whose activities impact on the environment and river systems that need to be integrated into the risk management activities.
- The line of operation must be maintained while cooperation and information exchange must be a priority. This, it was viewed, will allow exchange of ideas and knowledge between water and environmental professionals to tackle the flood and drought events.
PAPER XXIX: “PROBLEMS OF INCREASING LANDUSE INTENSITY IN INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND THE NEED FOR ECOLOGICAL CIVILIZATION IN ATTAINMENT OF WATER SECURITY IN NIGERIA”, BY MR. J. N. OKPARA
The paper dwelt on physic-chemical and bacteriological analysis of water samples collected from 32 boreholes in the Benin Owena River Basin Development Authority (BORBDA), Nigeria. It elaborated on factors inhibiting the provision of safe and sufficient water to the populace. Some of the factors highlighted were pollution (both point and diffuse source), climatic change, land use, improper exploitation of groundwater resources, human interaction with ecosystem, socio-economic problems, etc.
The paper noted the following: –
Inequality that existed within water resources as they related to the management of ecosystem and water demand were fingered out as major threat to achieving water security in Nigeria.
Ecosystem has been disturbed and affected by pollution, human activities and population pressure on land as well as climatic changes.
To reduce this observed inequality, all physical processes and human interaction will have to be balanced to achieve an integrated water resources management.
Inappropriate use and abuse of water resources potential most especially over exploitation and pollution of groundwater have been responsible for the decline in the available scarce resource, and
There is the need to map out water pollution abatement strategies to prevent pollution from source. Placement of emphasis on impact of land use management and ecology is a priority toward achieving a safe and efficient water management on an integrated scale.
- Rock formations were identified as one of the key factors impairing water quality.
- Adequate and regular assessment of water quality, most especially, groundwater and long-term land use planning is necessary and vital in order to attain a sustainable water development and water management.
- Water professionals have to overcome the challenges of finding balance on all front between aquatic weeds and other family of the ecosystem.
- The approach of attaining a balance in an ecosystem to strike a balance between the water use, land use and plant community was not seen as a good approach.
- Rather, a professional approach that should be pursued is one which seeks to develop strategies, link up the stakeholders and decision makers with a view to formulating clear policies, rules and regulations on planning, management, and prevention of water systems from indiscriminate pollution.
PAPER XXX: “ISSUES IN TRANS-BOUNDARY AQUIFER MANAGEMENT – PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE IULLEMEDEN AQUIFER SYSTEM”, BY JOHN CHABO
The project objectives include: –
- Identifying local and cross border risks,
- Building capacity with the Basin Countries for continuous identification/analysis,
- Mitigation of threats,
- Establishment of a permanent consultation mechanism for sustained monitoring/ management of the Aquifer resources.
The author highlighted the main issues in Trans-Boundary Aquifer Management as multidisciplinary and integrated approach. The National concerns are – political drive, awareness creation/education for all levels (political, management, scientific, community/user level) as well as meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
He enumerated some of the international challenges as:
- Demand management in the face of dwindling supply,
- Uncontrolled abstraction,
- Population growth,
- Data/Information flow,
- Low awareness level.
A joint management approach, according to the author, includes the following: –
- Operational needs,
- Legal frameworks,
- Monitoring tools (versatile databases models), and
- Capacity Building
The Iullemeden Aquifer System project covers Nigeria, Niger and Mali, with the following derivable economic activities: –
- Animal Husbandry,
- Mining Activities,
Initial findings from the TDA were: –
- Natural Phenomena,
- Climatic Change,
- Water and Wind Erosion,
- Disappearing Artesian flows.
While some of the human induced phenomenon include: –
- Over exploitation leading to Aquifer depletion,
- Deteriorating water quality/pollution effects,
- Hydrological and Hydrogeological data gaps in quantity and quality,
- Absence of regulatory framework or non-enforcement of the regulations where they exist,
- Difference of regulations across borders.
Some of the results recorded so far are: –
- Project Documents prepared and project launched,
- Donors/Financial fund (GEF, UNESCO, FAO, IAEA, ESA, 3 Countries involved. However, there is still room for more donors,
- Implementation Institute set up,
- Several National Coordination Meetings in the various countries held,
- Regional meetings facilitated by UNESCO, FAO, ESA, IAEA and GEF have been held,
- Training activities implementation by IAEA and ESA,
- Consultancy contracts awarded and executed on TDA Water resources desk studies and,
- Consultation mechanisms completed,
- Digital Hydrogeological map of Basin produced.
PAPER XXXI: WATER AVAILABILITY & MANAGEMENT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: SURFACE OR GROUNDWATER OPTION”, BY ADAMA BABA
The Paper stated that urban piped water supplies in Northern Nigeria, were based on surface
water which did not function to the satisfaction of water consumers. In order to reduce the
dependence on the often dry taps of the piped water schemes, urban dwellers get their water from
hand-dug wells and boreholes. The author stressed that it was necessary to improve the water
schemes that are presently under-utilized.
The author further stated that as urbanization and increasing industrialization continues so will the role of hydrologists increase in meeting the demands of larger population for water, for domestic, agricultural and industrial uses. In order not to create environmental problems such as over abstraction of water, there is a need to assess and quantify groundwater and surface water potentials as they are inseparable.
In Nigeria, the development of water resources is vested in the River Basin Development Authorities, but in practice, nobody coordinates the exploitation of water executed by the water boards, State Agricultural development programme and individual water users. Effective management of the River Basin water resources depends on efficient collection of data, relating to Static Basin parameters as well as inference of dynamic hydrological conditions.
The author noted that fundamental requirement in the design of any residential water supply scheme is to have a comprehensive data on the existing and approximate population growth rate of that community. This will help the designer to estimate the immediate and future water demand, which normally is done for a planning horizon of about 30 years. “A typical example in question is the “Ahmadu Bello University water supply scheme which was done in two phases.
On the issue of water supply situation in Northern Nigeria, a relatively shorter period of rainy season and a longer period of dry season is experienced. A huge measure of irrigation farming is employed with the aid of dams. The dams have made it possible for the Northern part of Nigeria to have more water even during the dry season.
The author suggested that the core components of water resources management plans will be to continuously monitor the quantity and quality of water as well as level of water consumption and impact of water exploitation on the physical, biological and human environments.
PAPER XXXII: “RECHARGE STUDIES IN THE NIGERIAN SECTOR OF THE CHAD BASIN USING GEOCHEMICAL DATA (CHLORIDE AND STABLE ISOTOPE)”, BY DR IBRAHIM BABA GONI
The author stated that rationale approach to groundwater resources management and development requires the knowledge of the origin of the resources and rates of their replenishment. This information represents basic input data for qualitative modeling which increasingly is being used for groundwater management practices
According to him, the use of isotope in conjunction with solutes provides a powerful tool for the investigation of modern hydrological processes and the reconstruction of palaeohydrology. The author employed chemical methods which are based on tracing geochemical signal through the component of hydrological cycle and in the process, estimated the rate of groundwater recharge qualitatively and quantitatively. The chemical tracers most commonly used in recharge studies are 3H, 14C, 36C, 15N, 14O, 2H, 13C and Cl.
From the studies it was indicated that the Nigerian sector of the Chad Basin located in the South Western part, discovered rivers to be seasonal, exception being Lake Chad. Therefore, perennial recharge to Lake Chad is believed to be from groundwater.
The study also revealed that active sand dunes and inter diurnal depressions with dense
vegetation occurs at fringes typical of landscape in the Northern part of the study area. On the
dunes, the water balance is defined by precipitation minus evapotranspiration.
The paper concluded that:
- recharge rates of up to 50mm is taking place at the shallow groundwater from the unsaturated zone profile technique;
- stable isotope has demonstrated that present day recharge is taking place into shallow groundwater;
- the declines in water table are likely to be climate controlled, due to reduced recharge following reduction in rainfall;
- the future of this region lies in the sustainable management of the shallow groundwater as studies have shown that the deep confined aquifers contain palaeowater and therefore the abstraction amounts to mining;
- in this water scarce region, management strategy must be adopted aimed at reducing usage and eliminating wastage.
The participants noted that:
- sufficient data was assembled in the early 70’s that showed there was imminent lowering of the piezometric heads in the middle aquifers as a result of decrease in recharge rate.
- remedial measures which include abstraction control, prevention and control of wasteful free flowing boreholes as found at cattle water drinking points;
- water level data from Steven’s auto recorder were obtained in the 50’s and 60’s ;
- since groundwater resources are invisible its estimation should be done by a combination of direct and indirect methods;
- if we have had a network of dedicated stations measuring groundwater levels as it was in the 60’s, then we would understand the groundwater components of the hydrological cycle better;
- as a result of population growth and other competing users, there should be plan towards waste water reuse.
PAPER XXXIII: “OVERVIEW OF GROUNDWATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA”, BY DR. A. ONUGBA
The paper informed that Nigeria is situated between the Atlantic Ocean and the Sahara Desert with a population of about 120million. It covers a land mass of 924,000 sq km with 60% of its population as rural dwellers.
The Rainfall usually lasts 5 – 10 months and decreases from 3,000mm in the South to 500mm in the North. The paper revealed that rivers, streams, etc. are more abundant and perennial in the south than in the North. Groundwater sources are shallow crystalline basement aquifers and sedimentary formations. Some of the geology and hydrogeology characteristics include; 60% crystalline rocks (weathered) mantle overlaying 20% consolidated sedimentary materials which the remaining 20% are unconsolidated materials.
GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION IN NIGERIA
The author highlighted some of the abstraction mechanisms commonly found in Nigeria and respective impacts as:
- Mechanized boreholes for Municipal, industrial and individuals;
- Dug wells, Tube wells in irrigation agriculture;
- Spring development for rural communities;
- Aquatic ecosystem damage and irreversible land subsidence;
Other socio-economic impacts are:
- Increased productivity from groundwater irrigation of agricultural production
- Food security, employment generation, poverty reduction and insurance against drought.
Some of the negative impacts include:
- Drying up of wetlands e.g. Lake Chad Basin and increasing concentrations of arsenic and fluoride which constitute health risks;
- Decrease in yield and pumping cost increase;
- Water quality deterioration;
The challenges facing groundwater development in Nigeria were low level of sustainability attributed to inappropriate policy and legislation, insufficient institutional support, unsustainable financing mechanism, ineffective management system and lack of technical backstopping.
The following recommendations were made:
- There is the need to use professionals to undertake studies and proper management guidelines for the entire country.
- Revisit water resources Decree 101 with a view to amending and enforcing as appropriate.
- Revisit local manufacturing of water Development facilities
- Set up a coordinating body as groundwater development commission
- Conduct, evaluation or assessment to appraise the River Basin Development Authority (RBDA) for improved performance.
The participants noted that there are large scale volumetric abstractions for industrial purposes that the Aquifer is at risk of depletion. In areas where there is heavy rainfall, the replenishment from rainfall in one day may equal the daily abstractions. For example, in Katsina State, there are areas where the withdrawals have led to declining water levels, whereas a few kilometers from the boreholes within the same aquifer, the water levels are close to the surface.
In another contribution, the participants were of the opinion that there was a need for appropriate legislation to be put in place. This is to compel drilling Agencies to report all drilling programmes/activities in all communities so that safe yields can be computed for all drilled boreholes and appropriate pumps purchased for water delivery. If this is not done, there is the risk of dewatering aquifers in urban centres which can cause subsidence in heavily built areas especially where almost every household has a borehole.
In another contribution, it was suggested that instead of complaining of inadequacy or non-availability of reliable data for water resources planning and development in Nigeria, there is the need to commission and empower some of our research institutes and water resources centres to conduct studies and make relevant data available accordingly.
PAPER XXXIV: “METHODS AND SCOPE OF WATER RESOURCES MANGEMENT IN TRANSBOUDARY AQUIFERS: WATER BUDGET FROM KATSINA STATE, A CASE STUDY”, BY MOHAMMED LAWAL GARBA
The paper stated that Katsina State is under the Hydrological jurisdiction of Sokoto/Rima River Basin Development Authority which has joint boundaries with Hadejia-Jama’are River Basin Development Authority and Upper Niger River Basin Development Authority and more importantly joint boundary with the Niger Republic.
The aim of the paper is to submit for discussion a format of water budget which can be used as a core of water resources management plan on both sides of the international boundary to achieve comparable results. The objective of the paper is to make inventory of the water resources in Katsina State as a baseline information for the policy makers on how much water is available in the State, how much land can be irrigated with water; how many jobs in irrigated agriculture and related services will be created.
WATER RESOURCES IN KATSINA STATE
The author classified water resources in Katsina State into Static water resources and Dynamic water resources. Static Water Resources consist of:
- static atmospheric water resources,
- static surface water resources, and
- static groundwater resources.
Dynamic Water Resources
The total dynamic water resources were calculated as 3,232 x 106m3/yr (3.232km3/yr). This was gotten by using run-off coefficient of 0.15 corresponding to the average annual rainfall depth of the state of 900mm/yr.
The author concluded that the State has surplus water over the water demand, but when the environmental resources of the State are fully developed, the ultimate water demand will increase.
The participants agreed that more investigative work needed to be done by the author to expand the scope of the project.